Semiconductors are used to produce a variety of electronic device types, including diodes , transistors, and integrated circuits. Semiconductors in their normal state, weak conductors as a current allows electrons to pass, stopping the entire influx of new electrons and making their valence bands filled up. Semiconductor materials such as gallium arsenide (GaAs), silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge) have electrical properties between those of a "conductor" and a "insulator" somewhere in the centre.

•    Semiconductor Physics and Applications
•    Semiconductor Devices & Circuits
•    Electronic Properties of Doped Semiconductors
•    The electrical characterization of semiconductors
•    Transport Equations for Semiconductors
•    Optical Processes in Semiconductors
•    Semiconductor Materials